Diagnosis / work up should include:

  • Physical examination – general and perineum.
  • Blood tests and chest x-ray for general fitness for surgery and anaesthesia.
  • Abdominal ultrasound is required to rule out kidney pathology.
  • Proximal hypospadias with undescended testes or DDS require a complete genetic and hormonal evaluation.

Associated anomalies:

  • A patent processus vaginalis (9%) (inguinal hernia or hydrocele)
  • Undescended testes
  • Anomalies of the upper urinary tract.

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