INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
The term hypospadias is derived from the Greek words hypo (below, toolittle) and Spadone (crack, gutter).The condition is one of the most common congenital abnormalities and occurs in around 1 in 300 births. Hypospadias is also the most common congenital defect of the penis / male external genitalia, wherein the external urethral meatus is found to be abnormally on the ventral aspect of penis may be on the shaft, the scrotum or the perineum. Depending on the severity of the defect, effects range from purely aesthetic or cosmetic to severe functional disorders. Patients with severe untreated hypospadias cannot achieve normality regarding micturation and sexual life.

DEFINITION

DEFINITION
Hypospadias, in the boys may be defined classically as an association of three anatomic and developmental anomalies of the penis

  1. Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft or
    ill-placed urethral opening, on the under surface of the penis.
  2. An abnormal distribution of foreskin / hooded foreskin and
  3. Curvature / chordee of penis.

The 2nd and 3rd characteristics may not necessarily be present. In contrast, the first feature is an unconditional part of the definition. Structures affected in varying degrees are the anterior urethral portion, the glans, the prepuce, and the corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa. More than 400 surgical techniques have been published.

CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION
The most common classification was published by Duckett. He divided them into anterior (50%), middle (30%) and posterior (20%) hypospadias.

These are also classified according to the location of the meatus. The anterior form: glandular, coronal and subcoronal. The middle form: distal penile, “midshaft” and proximal penile.
The posterior form: penoscrotal, scrotal and perineal.

Special cases are the chordee without hypospadias and the “Megalomeatus The “chordee without hypospadias” is characterized by a ventral curvature of the penile shaft and normal position of the urethral opening.

The “Megalomeatus” is characterized by a normal looking prepuce and coronal lying meatus adjacent to a non closed-glans with an open navicular fossa.